Essay on Kashmir issue
In 1947, the British gave independence to India, but with this they divided the country into two pieces and sowed such seeds of mutual animosity between India and Pakistan, due to which both the countries are still unable to sit peacefully. . The problem of Kashmir is the most prominent among the disputes between India and Pakistan.
When India became independent, the British-ruled provinces were divided between India and Pakistan, and the native states were given the freedom to merge with whomever they wanted, either India or Pakistan. For the native states which were in the middle of India or Pakistan, this exemption was equal or not, because while living in the middle of India or Pakistan, they could not form an alliance with any other country.
But Kashmir was such a state whose border touched both India and Pakistan and it could declare its union with either of them. The problem was further complicated because the king of Kashmir was a Hindu, but a large part of the subjects there were Muslims.
According to the Indian Independence Act, legally the king had the right to choose between India or Pakistan. But the government of Kashmir decided to stay away from either of the two countries. Before independence, in the politics of India, the two states of Kashmir and Hyderabad were considered equal in one respect.
In Hyderabad the subjects were Hindus and Raja Mus Laman. In contrast in Kashmir, the king was Hindu and the subjects were Muslim. Pakistan claimed to be the protector of all Muslims. Therefore, when he saw that the state of Hyderabad was stuck in the middle of India and that he had no other option but to join India, he wanted to capture Kashmir by force.
For this a provisional independent Kashmir government was formed and on its behalf thousands of tribals were sent to attack Kashmir by armed forces. These tribesmen were given weapons of the Pakistani army and they were also led by the military officers of Pakistan. The army of Kashmir state was very small.
She fought these robbers with great valor, but she could not stop them due to the small number of people and within a few days, the tribal people reached near Srinagar, the capital of Kashmir, growing like a storm. At that time the government of Kashmir came to its senses.
He saw his existence in danger. Sheikh Abdullah, the king there and the leader of the National Conference, the largest political party of Kashmir, sought military assistance from India to stop the tribals. The Government of India said that Indian forces can be sent to protect Kashmir only when Kashmir becomes constitutionally included in India.
Both the King of Kashmir and Sheikh Abdullah accepted the accession of Kashmir with India and immediately after that the Indian army was sent to Kashmir by planes. What the Indian Army did in Kashmir deserves to be written in golden letters.
The Rubaili invaders had reached very close to the airport and if there was a delay of even an hour or two, they would have captured the airport and in that case it would have been almost impossible to send military aid to Kashmir.
But a handful of Indian soldiers stopped the invaders from advancing and as the new army reached Kumuf, the Indian army grew in strength and drove away the Bhakanta far away. If the Indian Army had got some more time relaxation at that time, then India would have right over all of Kashmir and this problem would have been solved at some point.
But then the Government of India presented the question of Pakistan’s invasion of Kashmir before the Security Council of the United Nations. The Security Council promptly made a ceasefire treaty between the two countries, as a result of which almost half of Kashmir remained under the control of Pakistan and half of it was under the control of India.
As far as the legal status is concerned, the legitimate government of that time had accepted the accession of Kashmir to India, hence Kashmir has become a part of India. Not only Cable Rana, but the leaders of the subjects there had also demanded to send Indian forces to Kashmir and accepted the merger of Kashmir with India.
Thus Kashmir became a part of India at the will of both the king and Q.1. The entry of Pakistani tribesmen or Pakistani forces into Kashmir is nothing but a naked attack. The only tactic of Pakistan to capture Kashmir is that a large part of the subjects of Kashmir are Muslims and the culture of Muslims is similar to that of Pakistan.
Therefore Kashmir should be merged with Pakistan. But India is not ready to accept this communal device. At present there are four crore Muslims living in India too. Therefore there is no reason why the Muslims of Kashmir should not be able to remain a part of India.
Kashmir’s trade has also been more with India than with Pakistan. Taking the question of Kashmir to the United Nations did not help. Pakistan should have been declared an invader, but by not doing so many other new disputes were raised and the whole question still remains undecided.
The reason for this is that there is political factionalism in the United Nations and as a result of factionalism, any question cannot be decided with complete impartiality. At the time of the ceasefire, the political leaders of India had declared that as soon as the invading armies would be withdrawn from Kashmir and an atmosphere of peace would be created there, India would have the opportunity to decide this by holding a plebiscite there.
Whom she wants to meet with India or Pakistan. In fact, making such a declaration was absolutely unnecessary. The necessary conditions for the plebiscite have not been fulfilled yet, but since then Pakistan continues to sing the plebiscite of the referendum.
In the meantime, the United Nations sent several arbitrators to mediate the dispute in Kashmir. But till now no one got any success. Admiral Chester Nimitz was first made a referendum officer, but a suitable environment could not be created for the referendum. In 1950 Sir Provan Dixon and after him Dr Graham were sent to Kashmir as mediator, but both could not succeed.
After him in 1957 Mr. Jring of Sweden also came to decide the matter, but after consulting both India and Pakistan, he also returned unsuccessfully. In the meantime the progress of Kashmir did not stop. In 1651, elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in Kashmir and this Constituent Assembly made a constitution of its own and implemented it in Kashmir. This constitution also supported the integration of Kashmir with India.
The most popular leader in Kashmir at that time was Sheikh Abdullah. Sheikh Abdullah started such a conspiracy with the help of some foreign powers, so that by canceling the decision of the Constituent Assembly, Kashmir should be made an independent state again.
In those days famous Jansandhi leader Dr. Shyamaprasad Mukherjee went to Kashmir. Sheikh Abdullah’s government arrested him and Dr. Mukherjee died under arrest. Due to this, there was anger across the country against Sheikh Abdullah. In the end Sheikh Abdullah’s conspiracy got busted.
Sheikh was arrested and Bani Ghulam Muhammad became the new Prime Minister of Kashmir. Balpi Ghulam Muhammad is a staunch supporter of the unity of Kashmir and India. His statement is that the Constituent Assembly of Kashmir is the assembly of true representatives of the Kashmiri people and its decision is as authentic as a plebiscite and now there is no need to hold a separate referendum.
With the passage of time, more and more complications are arising in the matter of Kashmir. In the last years, Pakistan became a member of the ‘Baghdad-Pact’. Apart from this, he got a lot of military aid by doing another military alliance with America, due to which the balance of power in Asia changed completely.
India’s statement is that the circumstances under which it had accepted to hold a plebiscite have now changed from the root and Pakistan has not even withdrawn its forces from Kashmir, so the question of referendum does not arise anymore.
The Prime Ministers of India and Pakistan also met several times to find a peaceful solution to the Kashmir problem, but to no avail. Governments in Pakistan changed very frequently over the years and each government used to keep public’s attention towards Kashmir problem to maintain its position.
In 1958, a military dictatorship was established in Pakistan and a stable and strong government was formed there. Initially, General Ayub had also threatened to go to war to solve the problem of Kashmir.
But it is absolutely foolish to think that the problem of Kashmir will be solved by war. Buddha will prove to be disastrous for both the countries and western countries want to keep India and Pakistan fighting for their selfishness.
It seems that either the war between the two countries for Kashmir will remain sporadically or else the part of Kashmir which has its right will be accepted as its right and the present situation will be accepted as a constitutionally correct position.
This decision may not be justified, but it will definitely be simple and convenient to avoid future conflicts. Now, with the canal water withdrawal agreement reached on 16th September, 1960, it is expected that a peaceful solution to the Kashmir problem will also be found.
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