Biography of swami dayanand saraswati
If the social and political history of India is read carefully, then it will become clear that the struggle for India’s independence had started ever since the feet of the British were in India.
Political events – Governance – power fell in the hands of the British, but the thinkers and people’s leaders of the country never understood the rise of foreign power and they kept trying from the very first day to overthrow it.
Many times the revolt of 1857 is called the first war of India’s independence, but in fact the fire of rebellion against foreign rule was burning in the country long before 1857. By the beginning of the nineteenth century, the climax of India’s political, economic and social decline had come. There was an absolute lack of education. Money was being drawn abroad.
The shrines and temples were dens of hypocrisy. Due to untouchability, a large section of the caste remained inactive and indifferent. Taking advantage of this opportunity, Christian preachers and Muslim clerics were rapidly converting Hindus into Christians and Muslims.
The process of disintegration and degradation was in full swing. On such days Maharishi Dayanand was born in the year 1824 in a village called Tankara. Tankara is in Gujarat. Dayanandji’s name was Moolshankar in his childhood. His father Ambashankar was a Shaivite Brahmin and used to lead a life according to the then ethics.
The first major incident in Moolshankar’s life happened when he was only fourteen years old. On the festival of Shivratri, as per the rules, they were fasting and doing night awakenings. At the same time, he saw that a mouse in the temple climbed on top of the Shivling and roamed here and there and started eating the confectionery offered in worship.
Moolankar was taught that Lord Shiva is the lord of the whole world. The world can be destroyed by their mere wish and the Shivling in the temple is the symbol of that Shiva. Seeing the rat doing such a nuisance, it came to Moolshankar’s mind that this stone Shivling can never be Shiva and if it is Shiva, then there is no power in it.
It was a very minor thing, but its importance is very much because it was against the general ideology of the time and was new. All people blindly worshiped idols and were immersed in superstitions. The idol is not a god and worshiping the idol will not bring any benefit, it was not in everyone’s favor to emphasize this fact in those days.
After some time Moolshankar’s sister died. Then a few days later the uncle died. Moolankar became disinterested and he quietly ran away from home during the night and became a monk. Once his father caught him and brought him back.
But the recluse could not be kept tied up. Moolshankar then fled and traveled far and wide in the country. He became a monk and was named Dayanand. Earlier he had a great desire to learn yoga. He traveled far and wide in search of a true yogi guru, but everywhere he was seen as a hypocrite and a cunning sage.
In the end Dayanand reached Mathura in 1860 after being disappointed with the knuckles of yoga and stayed there with Dandi Swami Virjanand and started learning Vedas, grammar etc. from him. Virjanand ji was blind from his eyes. Due to the hypocrisy spread in the country, he used to feel a lot of pain.
When Dayanand’s education was over, Virjanandji requested him that Dayanand, you should propagate Vedic religion in the country. Save the Vedas and Shastras and dispel the darkness of ignorance. Dayanand was alone at that time. There was neither the force of the family nor any institution behind him.
The courage to remove the hypocrisy spread in the country on his own strength also has to be praised. In those days Kumbh Mela was being held in Haridwar. Going there, he hoisted his ‘hypocrisy’ flag. To oppose the hypocrites, he reached the bastion of hypocrites.
He did not get much success in the Kumbh Mela, but gradually the number of people who listened to him increased. Dayanandji was a good scholar of the scriptures and used to challenge the big pundits for debate. At that time, the person who used to win in the debate, his power used to accumulate everywhere.
In those days Kashi was considered a stronghold of mythological scholars. Dayanandji also won victory by doing debate in Kashi and his fame spread far and wide. At that time many other social leaders were busy demanding social reforms.
Raja Ram Mohan Roy of Bengal, by agitating against the practice of Sati, got it abolished and agitated for widow-marriage. Bharatendu Harishchandra also tried for women’s education. Dayanandji laid the foundation stone for the all-round progress of the Hindu caste.
On the one hand, he opposed superstitions and hypocrisy, of which the most prominent was the opposition to idolatry. On the other hand, he raised his voice to remove untouchability i.e. to eradicate the distinction of untouchability.
Movement for women’s education and widow-marriage. He strongly opposed child marriage. With the passage of time many influential people, even many kings became his devotees. In 1875, Dayanandji founded the Prayas Samaj.
Arya Samaj spread rapidly and within a short time, Prayatmaj was opened in almost all the big cities of the country and the situation was such that the meaning of the word Arya Samaji came to be understood as a reformist and progressive person.
Arya Samaj worked in various social areas. Arya Samaj raised the first voice for women’s education in North India and Hindi could be propagated in Urdu-dominated states like Punjab only because of Parya Samaj. Arya Samaj also did important work for the removal of untouchability.
Later the Congress also adopted these programs. Sage Dayanand instilled a sense of self-pride in the country through his thoughts and actions. The educated people of those days were so influenced by the civilization of Europe that they began to consider the history and literature of their country very petty and inferior.
The propaganda of Christians was increasing fourfold day by day with the support of the rulers. By emphasizing on the study of Vedas and Sanskrit literature, Dayanandji created a feeling in the minds of people that our ancestors were great; Our culture is high and we don’t need to face anyone.
In his treatise ‘Satyarth Prakash’, where he proved the superiority of Vedic culture, on the one hand, he also described the big flaws and faults of other opposing religions and cultures in such a way that people do not get misled by other preachers.
Many religions were founded before Dayanand, but most of them could attract only uneducated masses. For example, at some point when Buddha started a new religion, initially only illiterate people were initiated into his religion. Similarly, Kabirdas was also able to make the illiterate his followers.
On getting into India, Muslims and Christians were also able to attract only uneducated and backward classes towards them. On the contrary, Dayanandji had an impact on the educated society. He competed with the Paura Rinak scholars from the very beginning.
He was defeated again and again in debates, as a result of which he was stunned among well-educated and intelligent people. That should be considered a wonderful feature of Dayanandji. Dayanandji was a revolutionary. By crossing their time, they could see the future.
Despite being a Gujarati himself, he composed his book ‘Satyarth Prakash’ in Hindi. At that time Hindi was still in the state of construction, yet Hindi as he has written will not become old even for the next five hundred years. He also wrote some books in Sanskrit.
The Rigvedadibhashyabhumika gives a good introduction to his scholarship. He also maintained good friendly relations with his contemporaries foreign scholars through correspondence. Dayanand was not only a social reformer. They used to understand that without the independence of the country the society can never improve.
That is why he wrote in Satyarth Prakash that the worst indigenous rule is better than the best foreign rule. He was trying to organize the kings of Rajasthan. But he died before he could complete that work. His death was also somewhat mysterious.
The selfless truth preached by Dayanandji hurt the interests of many people. That’s why he was attacked many times, poison was given many times, but he did not even know to be afraid like Dayanandji. It is said that in the end some people conspired to get them poisoned in milk by their cook.
Dayanandji fell ill due to the effect of the poison. After being treated for many days, he finally passed away on the day of Diwali. The biggest feature of Dayanandji’s character is his fearlessness and selflessness. He did not try to establish any monastery or throne of his own.
Like other prophets, he did not try to project himself as a messenger of God. He made a big rule of Arya Samaj that one should always be ready to accept the truth and give up the untruth. To eradicate the superstitions of that time, there was a great need to emphasize on logic.
Dayanandji should be called the first rationalist Indian of the modern era. Dayanandji considered the Vedas as the final proof in every field, but his thoughts were progressing continuously and if he had lived for a few more years, it is no wonder that there would have been some change in his thoughts in this direction also.
He died at the young age of forty-five years. If he had lived for some more time, he would have been able to do a great service to the country and society. Even now, his place is foremost among the great men who founded present India.
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